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The World's Fair and Exposition
Information and Reference Guide

1901 Pan-American Exposition




  • 246 facts and trivia nuggets plus 39 links to external resources.

  • The World's Fair and Exposition Information and Reference Guide is now on CD.
    11,216 facts and 1,362 web links covering 24 World's Fairs and Expositions.
    Further information can be found here.

  • To Convert Dollar Amounts to the Year 2003: divide the amount by .048



The following categories are on CD
more Statistics (13) Postage Stamps (8)
more Trivia (17) High Resolution Images (12)
Art Gallery (7) Stadium (9)
Dairy Building (14) State Building Sizes
and Appropriations (11)
Ethnology Building (10) Buffalo, A Few Facts (13)
New York State Building (8) Admissions, Fares, Fees (60)
Ordnance Building (9)  
Bonus: Timeline 1901 (28)
Bonus: 1900 Prices and Facts (26)






  • Title: Pan-American Exposition.

  • Theme: To Promote Trade Among Pan-American Countries.

  • Location: Northern area of Buffalo, NY (includes a portion of Delaware Park).

  • Exposition President: John Milburn.

  • Official Logo Designer: Raphael Beck.

  • Architecture: Spanish Renaissance.

  • Category: Universal Exhibition.

  • Dates: May 1 - November 1, 1901 ( days).

  • Area: 140 hectares (350 acres).

  • Total Cost: $10,000,000.

  • Receipts: $8,869,000.

  • Loss: $6,000,000.

  • Attendance: 8,120,000 (5,306,859 paid).

  • Best Day: 116,000 on September 6th (President's Day) another report says: 162,424 visitors on October 19th (Buffalo Day).

  • Hours: (very hard to find).

  • Admission Before Official Opening: 25 for adults, 15 for children.

  • Daily Admission: 50 for adults, 25 for children. Sundays and after 7 PM: 25 adults, 15 children.

  • Daily Programs: 5.

  • Buildings: 20 Major Buildings, 100 total.

  • Entrances: 7.

  • Main Entrance: Lincoln Parkway Gate.

  • Exhibit Classifications (16): Agricultural and Dairy Products, Agricultural Implements and Machinery, Live Stock, Foods and their Accessories, Horticulture, Forestry and Forest Products, Mines and Metallurgy, Machinery, Electricity and Electrical Appliances, Transportation, Ordnance and Munitions, Manufacturers, Graphic Arts, Liberal Arts, Ethnology and Archaeology, Fine Arts.

  • Participating States (incomplete?): Alaska, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin.

  • Participating Nations: Argentine Republic, Canada, Chili, Costa Rico, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Philippines, San Salvador.

  • Participating US Territories: Guam, Hawaii, Porto Rico, Tutuila.

  • American Sculpture: 125 large groups, over 500 total.

  • Lighting: 240,000 seven watt electric lights, 42 miles of wire.

  • Soft Drink Stands: 57.

  • Exhibitors: 4,222 (counted from guidebook).

  • Exhibits: (unknown as of this writing).

  • Government Appropriations: $500,000.

  • Official Guidebooks: 5 inches by 7 inches, 224 pages, 25.

  • Conversion: every  $1 (1901)  = $20.83 (2003).

  • Population of Buffalo in 1901: 400,000.

  • 1901: Buffalo is the  8th largest populated city in the US.

  • In 1901, only 30 percent of the US has been mapped by the US Geological Survey.

  • Inventions and advances since the 1893 Chicago World's Fair: automobiles, acetylene gas, baby incubators, submarines, small bore rifles, wireless telegraphy and x-rays.

  • All buildings were painted in light colors thus giving the Pan-American Exposition the title of "Rainbow City".


Facts and Trivia



  • The idea for an Exposition was first suggested by John M Brinker at the 1895 Cotton States and International Exposition.

  • June 25, 1897 - the Pan-American Exposition Company is incorporated.

  • Cayuga Island was the first proposed site.

  • The Spanish American War in 1898 delays further planning.

  • Cayuga Island is considered too remote and a 350 acre farm owned by Bronson Rumsey is chosen.

  • September 5, 1899 - Lease is signed and construction begins.

  • May 1, 1901 - Theodore Roosevelt opens the Exposition ... as Vice President. President McKinley had cancelled due to his wife's illness.

  • Mr. William Hamlin received the first ticket.

  • The second ticket went to a reporter and the third and fourth ticket went to two farmers.

  • Miss Adelaide Thorpe of New York City won a $100 prize for designing the Official Exposition Flag.

  • Raphael Beck won $100 in an 1899 contest for designing the North America/South America females joining hands symbol.

  • Evelyn Rumsey Cary designed the "Spirit of Niagara" Poster.

  • More than 2,000 people visited the Hospital with stomach complaints.

  • Illumination Ceremony was every night at 8:30 PM.

  • The Kato Coffee Company introduced "instant coffee".

  • Apache Indian Chief Geronimo was on display as a side show, with a US bodyguard.

  • You could take pictures on the Exposition grounds but: it would cost you 50 cents a day per camera, you couldn't use a tripod and the pictures had to be 4 inches by 5 inches or smaller.



  • Musical entertainment played throughout the Exposition grounds and featured: Boston Ladies Band, Carlisle Indian Band, Lund's Orchestra, Organ Recitals, Porto Rican String Band, Regimental Military Bands, Sousa's Band and Victor Herbert's Orchestra.

  • Notable Exhibits included: akouphone (hearing aid), color printing, drinking fountains, eight-candle power lamp, electric boat propellers, electric searchlight projectors, electric typewriter, facsimile telegraph, fog horn, high speed automatic telegraphy, improved typesetting machine, instant coffee, large capacity steel rail cars, motor bicycles, mutoscope, portable water heater, pressed steel cars, smokeless powder, steel bridges, storage batteries, telautograph, the Gruson turret, thermopile (electricity from heat waves), thermostats, wireless telegraph.

  • Six Nations Stockades: Exhibits from the Indians of the Six Nations. Recreation of an Indian Village. Had interpreters so you could communicate with them.

  • The Woman's Pavilion was formerly a Country Club. Color Scheme: soft green.

  • Live Stock Exhibit: Housing for 2,000 animals on 10 acres of land.

  • Hospital Building: 30 feet by 100 feet.

  • The Plaza was 350 feet by 500 feet.

  • Lowney's Chocolate Exhibit Building was 3 stories high and displayed Lowney's cocoa and chocolate products. Across the "street" was the 2 story Baker's Chocolate Building.

  • The Indian Mounds were a collection of various earthworks found in the US and featured reproductions of: Ring Mound in Greenup County, Kentucky; Marietta Mound in Marietta, Ohio; Serpent Mound in Brush County, Ohio; and Eagle Mound.

  • September 6th, President McKinley is shot twice by an Anarchist named Leon Czolgosz while standing in line at the Temple of Music. The Expo closes early.

  • September 14th, President McKinley dies and Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in as president.

  • McKinley is buried in Canton, Ohio.

  • Republican William McKinley of Ohio was elected president in 1896 and re-elected in 1900.

  • He was the last of five Civil War veterans to serve in the White House, signaling the end of the post-war era.

  • September 23rd, Leon Czolgosz is found guilty of killing the President.

  • October 24th, Annie Edson Taylor goes over Niagara Falls in a barrel.

  • By March 1902, everything was demolished.

  • The Triumphal Arch was the last structure to be demolished.


Agricultural Hall




  • Location: South of the Stadium, north of the Manufacturers and Liberal Arts Building.

  • Superintendent: FA Converse.

  • Architects: Shepley, Routan, Coolridge of Boston, Massachusetts.

  • Color Scheme: light yellows and reds.

  • Exhibitors: US: 31, San Salvador: 47.

  • Exhibit Classification: 13 classes in 3 groups.

  • Size: 500 feet long by 150 feet wide.

  • Cost: $90,000.

  • Exhibits: bee keeping, breakfast food, canned fruits and vegetables, flour, honey, fertilizer, liquors, medicinal plants, paintings, syrup, tobacco.

  • US Exhibitors included: Battle Creek Pure Food, Cook & Bernheimer, Dickinson, Meadville Distilling, Petty.


Electric Tower



  • Architect: John Galen Howard of New York.

  • Color Scheme: light ivory, deep green accents, trimmed in gold and blue.

  • Height: 375 feet.

  • Waterfall: 11,000 gallons per minute.

  • Goddess of Light: 18 feet tall.

  • Searchlights: 94 in the basin.

  • Two Colonnades (Towers): 75 feet high.

  • Main Body: 80 feet square, 200 feet high.

  • On top of the Colonnades were a restaurant and roof gardens.

  • The Towers stand in a basin and a cascade of water (70 feet high, 30 feet wide) flows from its face.


Electricity Building



  • Location: North of The Machinery and Transportation Building, West of The Electric Tower Basin.

  • Superintendent: George Sever.

  • Architects: Green & Wicks of Buffalo, New York.

  • Color Scheme: light yellows and reds.

  • Main Floor: 25,000 square feet.

  • Size: 500 feet long, 150 feet wide.

  • Total Area: 75,000 square feet.

  • Exhibitors: 121.

  • Cost: $130,000.

  • Exhibit Classification: 14 groups.

  • Contained the Niagara Falls Transformer Plant which had a 5,000 horsepower capacity.

  • Exhibits: appliances, batteries, boat propellers, cables, dental equipment, dynamos, instruments, insulation, lighting, motors, phonographs, publications, telegraph, telephones, washing machines, wires.

  • US Exhibitors included: American Clock Company, American Electric Telephone, Bell Telephone, Bettini Phonographs, Diamond Arc Lamp, Dicke Tools, Edison Manufacturing, Electric Storage Battery, General Electric, Kellogg Switchboard and Supply, MacGraw Publishing, National Gramophone, Roebling & Sons, Stromberg-Carlson Telephone, Western Electric, Westinghouse.


Horticultural Hall



  • Location: West end of the West Esplanade Fountain.

  • Superintendent (Horticulture): Frederic Taylor.

  • Architects: Peabody & Stearns of Boston, Massachusetts.

  • Color Scheme: orange, blue, white, rose, deep yellow.

  • Size: 240 feet high.

  • Exhibitors: 306 (Horticulture), 49 (Floriculture).

  • Cost: $240,000.

  • Participating States: Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Oregon, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin.

  • Foreign Exhibitors: Costa Rico, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Ontario.

  • Exhibits: bitters, bulbs, cereals, coffee, cordials, evergreens, fish, flour, fruit, hemp, honey, leather, lumber, spring water, nuts, olive oil, plants, preserves, pressed flowers, seeds, shrubs, sugar, wine.

  • US Exhibitors included: American Ginseng, Burpee, Fleischmann, Bartlett Springs, Del Monte, Martinelli, Sierra Madre Wine, Sperry Flour, Zimmerman.


Machinery and Transportation Building



  • Location: West of the Court of Fountains, between The Electricity Building and Court of Lillies.

  • Superintendent: Thomas Moore.

  • Architects: Green & Wicks of Buffalo, New York.

  • Color Scheme: red tile roof, light reds and yellows.

  • Size: 500 feet, 350 feet.

  • Interior Court: 100 feet by 200 feet.

  • Area: 4 acres.

  • Exhibitors: 450.

  • Cost: $265,000.

  • Exhibits: anvils, appliances, automobiles, ball bearings, belting, bicycles, blowers, boilers, carriages, compressors, couplers, drills, elevators, engines, fire equipment, gaskets, gauges, heating apparatus, hoists, horseshoes, interchangeable parts, locomotives, machinery, motors, oils, presses, ocean liners, plows, power plants, pulleys, pumps, tools, tubing, wiring, valves, wagons.

  • US Exhibitors included: American Ice, American Motors, American Tool and Machine, Atlas Pipe Wrench, Bessemer Gas Engine, Binghamton Overall, Canadian Pacific Railway, Collins Plow, Conrad Motor Carriage, Continuous Rail Joint, Diamond Drill and Machine, Electric Vehicle, Empire Drill, Eureka Fire Hose, Fitchburg Steam Engine, Frick, Fulton Pulley, Goodyear Rubber, Holland American Line, Keystone Electric, Knox Automobile, Monarch Fire Appliance, National Meter Company, New York Central Railway, Pratt & Whitney, Pressed Steel Car, purity Stopper, Rand Drill, Rescue Life Boat, Riker Motor Vehicle, Roebling & Sons, Schubert Brothers Gear, Simplex Time Recorder, Standard Railway Signal, Standard Tool, Starrett, Stearnes Steam Carriage, Steel Ball, Stratton Motor Cycle, Studebaker Brothers, US Mail Car, US Tire Inflator, Vulcan Iron Works, Watertown Engine Company, Westinghouse, Whitney Manufacturing.


Manufacturers and Liberal Arts Building


  • Location: East of the Court of Fountains, between The Agriculture Building and the Court of Cypresses.

  • Superintendent (Manufacturers): Algar Wheeler.

  • Superintendent (Liberal Arts): Dr Selim Peabody.

  • Architects: Shepley, Routan & Coolridge of Boston, Massachusetts.

  • Color Scheme: light browns and reds.

  • Dome: 70 feet across.

  • Size: 500 feet by 350 feet.

  • Central Court: 200 feet by 100 feet.

  • Area: 4 acres.

  • Exhibitors: 1,457.

  • Cost: $255,000.

  • Acetylene Building: 100 feet by 30 feet. Color Scheme: old-rose, white, green

  • Exhibits included: appliances, billiard tables, books, carpet sweepers, cigars, cigarettes, clocks, chemicals, cutlery, dry goods, education exhibits, electric fixtures, enamelware, flooring, food products, furniture, furs, golf clubs, hosiery, jewelry, locks, minerals, musical instruments, razors, refrigerators, silverware, paint, pens, photographs, rugs, safes, scientific apparatus, shoes, soap, stained glass, stoves, textiles, tools, sewing machines, typewriters, varnishes.

  • US Exhibitors included: Aeolian, American Bible Society, American Carbide Lamp, American Wringer, Bissell Carpet Sweeper, Borden Condensed Milk, Century Corset, Charles Knox, Clark & Company, Claviola, Corbin Lock, Cutler & Girard, Doubleday, Page & Company, Eagle Generator, Eastman Kodak, Esterbrook Pens, Funk & Wagnall's, Gem Cutlery, George Fuller, Gorham Manufacturing, Grand Rapids Chair Company, Gustave Stickley, Heinz, Henry Nestle, Horlick's Food, Ideal Cash Register, International Arithmachine, Kato Coffee, Kimball, Larkin Soap, Libby, Lovell Dry Plate, Ludwig & Company, McGraw-Marden, Merriam Company, Michigan Stove, National Cash Register, New Panama Canal Company, Oneida Community, Oscar Company, Pillsbury-Washburn Flour Mills, Pittsburgh Plate Glass, Prudential Insurance, Railroad Gazette, Regina Music Box, Singer Sewing Machine, Spencer Optical, Standard Sanitary, Tiffany Studios, Sunlight Gas Machine Company, Union Bag and Paper, Union Carbide, US Leather Company, Waterman Fountain Pens, Welch Grape Juice, Wesson Process, Western Union, Whitehead and Hoag.


Mines and Mining


  • Location: South of West Esplanade Fountain.

  • Superintendent: David Day

  • Architects: Peabody & Stearns of Boston, Massachusetts.

  • Color Scheme: maroon burlap.

  • Area: 30,000 square feet.

  • Exhibitors: 1,142.

  • Exhibits: asphalt, borax, brick, cement, clay, cobalt, copper, carborundum, crystals, flint, gold, granite, graphite, lead, lime, marble, metallurgy, mineral water, oil, ores, paint, petrified wood, plaster, pottery, publications, quartz, rock salt, sand, smelting, soap, stone, terra cotta, tile, zinc.

  • US Exhibitors included: Alaska Marble Company, Alcatraz Company, Ames, Arcadian Mine, Cayuga Plaster, Comstock Lode, Dunlap, Galena Oil, Hood River Stone, Hotchkiss, International Nickel, John Hopkins University, Kalb & Son, Lathrop, Lawrence Cement, Lehigh Portland Cement, National Salt, Nevada Salt and Borax, New Jersey Slate, New York Brick and Paving, Nickel Copper, Ogden Brick, Poole, Rittenhouse, Standard Oil, Syracuse Pottery.

  • Canadian Exhibitors included: Canadian Northern Railway, Crown Corundum, Empress Mine, Grand Hotel, Hamilton Steel and Iron, Ontario Graphite.

  • Mines Building Design.

Graphic Arts Division

  • Superintendent: Thomas Moore.

  • Graphics Art Workshop: 140 feet by 40 feet. Architects: Carrere & Hastings of New York.

  • Exhibitors: 84.

  • Graphic Art Division Exhibits included: books, bookbinding, cameras, copy machines, electrotyping, engraving, illustrations, inks, lithographs, magazines, maps, paper, photographs, playing cards, posters, presses, publications.

  • Graphic Art Division Exhibitors included: Albertype, American Embossing, Buffalo Envelope, Century Company, Courier, Doubleday, Page & Company, Eagle Ink, Funk & Wagnall's, International Paper, National Magazine, Pennypacker, Rouse & Company, United States Lithograph, United States Playing Cards, Western Bank Note.

  • Graphic Arts Building and Graphic Arts Workshop Design.


Temple of Music



  • Location: South of the Machinery and Transportation Building.

  • Architect: AC Esenwein of Buffalo, New York

  • Color Scheme: light yellows, with gold and red trim, and light blue panels.

  • Size: 150 feet long, 150 feet wide.

  • Dome: 180 feet high, blue-green color scheme.

  • Cost: $85,000.

  • Temple of Music Design & Layout.

  • Pipe Organ Maker: Emmons Howard of Westfield, Massachusetts.

  • Contained one of the largest pipe organs ever built in the US.

  • Daily organ recitals.

  • Seating for 2200 people.


US Government Building



  • Location: Eastern Central, around the East Esplanade Fountain.

  • Architect: JK Taylor.

  • Hours: Monday through Saturday close at 6 PM, Closed Sundays.

  • Dome: 250 feet high (Statue of "Victory" was 20 feet high).

  • Smithsonian Exhibit: 7,500 square feet.

  • Cost: $500,000 (including exhibits).

  • Departments Represented: Agriculture, Bureau of American Republics, Fish and Fisheries, Interior, Justice, Labor, Navy, Post Office, Smithsonian Institute, State, Treasury, War.

  • Actually 3 Buildings: 1 main, 2 smaller (one is the Fisheries Building).

  • Exhibits: life-saving station, naval ordinance, post office, Triceratops skeleton, weather station.

  • Special Exhibits from: Cuba, Guam, Hawaii, Porto Rico, Philippines, Tutuila.


Foreign Buildings and Exhibits


  • The Canadian Building was actually 2 three story buildings covering 2,500 square feet. Appropriations: $112,000.

  • Argentine Republic: Forestry Building: 1500 square feet Agriculture Building: 3700 square feet $30,000 in Gold.

  • Bolivia: 2400 square feet in Agricultural, Ethnology and Mining Building.

  • Brazil: 500 square feet in Agricultural Building. Brazilian Fazenda.

  • Chili Building: Exhibits: $170,00 gold. Cost: $28,000.

  • Columbia had a representative but no exhibit.

  • Costa Rica: 1660 square feet in Ethnology, Forestry, Horticulture, others.

  • Cuba Building: Size: 50 feet, 75 feet. Cost: $25,000.

  • Dominican Republic Building: Cost: $4,000.

  • Guatemala: 1,100 square feet in several buildings.

  • Honduras Building: Cost: $6,000.

  • Mexican Building: 40 feet, 60 feet, 20 feet high. Contained only mining exhibits. Also Space in: Agriculture: 3,000 square feet Forestry: 2,000 square feet Horticulture: 2,000 square feet Ethnology: 2,000 square feet Manufacturers: 3,000 square feet Mexico also had a 62 piece military band and a company of Mounted Rurales.

  • Nicaragua: Agriculture, Ethnology, Horticulture and Mining Buildings.

  • Peru: Agriculture, Forestry, Manufactures, Mines.

  • Porto Rico Building: Rancho 24 feet, 78 feet, 20 feet high Cost: $2,000 Exhibits: $10,000 Also 1200 square feet in Agriculture Building.

  • Salvador: 2,000 square feet in Agriculture, Forestry, Mining Buildings.

  • Venezuela originally appropriated $100,000 for an exhibit but canceled after political unrest in the country.

  • Jamaica had a display in the Agricultural and Horticultural Buildings.





  • Superintendent: Frederic Taylor.

  • A miniature reproduction of the 1893 Chicago World's Fair attracted interest.

  • A Trip to the Moon was an indoor exhibit.

  • The African Village contained 35 African tribes in their native habitat. And Boer War exhibit.

  • Akoun's Beautiful Orient included: camel and elephant rides, coffee houses, fortune tellers, oriental sports exhibitions, theatres and dancing girls featuring Fatima and La Belle Rosa.

  • Alt Nurnberg featured the 48 piece Royal Bavarian Band, Luchow's Restaurant and the Gebhard astronomical clock.

  • Around the World featured woman singing and dancing in their national costumes.

  • Bonner, The Educated Horse performed his talking and calculating abilities.

  • Bostock's Chariots was a merry-go-round ride.

  • The Captive Balloon took visitors on a 15 minute, 1000 foot balloon ride. The Balloon was 100 feet in diameter.

  • The Cardiff Giant was on display. The 10 foot, 3,000 pound prehistoric man was excavated near Cardiff, New York in 1869.

  • One building played Cineograph moving pictures.

  • Chiquita was a 31 year old, 26 inch tall female midget who entertained guests in her parlor. She could communicate in 7 different languages.

  • Cleopatra's Temple exhibit resembled an Egyptian temple with various paintings depicting the life of Cleopatra.

  • An actual working reproduction of a Colorado Gold Mine was present.

  • Cora Beckwith provided the aquatic entertainment in a tank of water.

  • You could see cannibals in Darkest Africa.

  • The Darkness and Dawn exhibit was described as "a realistic representation of a departed spirit".

  • The journey to and the destruction of Dawson City in 1901 was recreated daily. This event was similar to the Johnston Flood exhibit.

  • Dreamland (Mirror Maze) featured distorted mirrors.

  • The Esquimau Village contained exhibits from three tribes in the Hudson Straits.

  • The Evolution of Man illustrated Darwin's Theory of evolution.

  • The Fall of Babylon painting was on display in the Darkness and Dawn building.

  • In the Glass Factory you can watch the actual procedures involved in producing glassware and purchase them afterwards.

  • The Gypsy Camp featured Princess Stellita's dancing gypsy's and Lola Cotton the mind reader.

  • In the Hawaiian Village and Theatre exhibit, Hula-Hula Girls presented the "alaapa-apa" and the "hulu-pahu" dances for the first time in the US.

  • Fair Japan featured geisha girls, a Japanese Theatre and a reproduction of a Royal building.

  • The Johnstown Flood of 1889 was graphically recreated daily.

  • Ideal Palace was an artist studio with over 20 living models illustrating works of art.

  • The Indian Congress consisted of 700 Indians from 42 tribes living in their natural habitat. The exhibit featured: Indian Rough Riders, 15 War Chiefs, Native American dances and ceremonies, and Winona (Sioux Indian maiden).

  • Infant Incubators contained 11 premature babies.

  • Jerusalem on the Day of the Crucifixion was a cyclorama.

  • The World's Smallest Railroad, the Miniature Railway, took visitors on a first-class train ride.

  • Mrs. McCready's Restaurant provided eats.

  • McGarvie's Streets of Mexico contained a theatre and bull ring. Bull fights occurred 5 times a day with bulls imported from Mexico.

  • The Moorish Palace (Pan-Optican) display covered events in world history.

  • The Mutoscope Building featured "moving pictures" on 150 Mutoscope machines for a penny.

  • The Old Plantation was a representation of an Old Southern Plantation. It included 150 Southern "darkies" in song and dance. And the log cabins in which Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis were born.

  • The Ostrich Farm covered 2 1/2 acres and featured 75 ostriches in various stages of growth.

  • The Pabst Pavilion provided refreshment and entertainment.

  • The Philippine Village featured native inhabitants and, for the first time in the US, the Bollo Sword Dance.

  • Roltair's House Upside Down (Palace of Illusions) exhibit was exactly that, an upside down house that you enter through the roof. Various illusions and transformations were found throughout, including one entitled "Niagara Falls".

  • The Scenic Railway and Aquarama was a train and boat ride.

  • The Thompson Aerio-Cycle ride resembled a double Ferris wheel ride that rose to 275 feet.

  • Venice in America was a replica of a Venetian community, complete with canals and gondoliers.

  • The Volcano of Kilauea erupted daily.

  • The War Cyclorama featured the Battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge.

  • Wild Water Sports featured platform diving Elks and the Norwegian "Wild Boar Chase".

  • The Zanzigs were palmists.


Links, Resources, Sources



Resources, Sources - Books


  • Official Catalog and Guide to the Pan-American Exposition 
    by Charles Ahrhart. Buffalo, NY. 1901.

  • Buffalo, NY: Pan American Exposition 
    by Thomas Leary, Elizabeth C  Sholes 
    Arcadia Publishing - Paperback - September 5, 1998.

  • Symbol & Show : The Pan-American Exposition of 1901 
    by Austin Fox, Lawrence McIntyre (Illustrator) 
    The Buffalo Bookshelf Series.


Image Sources


  • Albertype images are from the publication Pan-American Exposition by A Whittemann, Publisher of American Views. 1901.

  • Layout Diagrams are from the Official Catalog and Guide to the Pan-American Exposition 
    by Charles Ahrhart. Buffalo, NY. 1901

  • Amatuer Photographs are from my personal collection.



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